World Congress

for freedom of scientific research

Assisted Reproduction

Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are the methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Access to assisted reproduction concerns our ability to expand our right to health by offering us access to treatment to overcome infertility.

Assisted reproduction


To measure the degree of reproductive freedom granted by law, we identified three areas of measurement:

  1. Key ARTs that have been developed to treat infertility. We selected six ARTs: prenatal diagnosis; oocyte and embryo cryopreservation; sperm and oocyte donation; and IVF surrogacy;
  2. Key legal requirement that may prevent certain infertile women from accessing the ARTs selected for measurement. We identified three key requirements that may limit reproductive freedom. These are: the requirement to be married or, in absence, to be in a stable relationship with a significant other, and the requirement for couples to be in a heterosexual relationship;
  3. Key legal restrictions of freedom of the treating physician to perform the chosen ARTs freely. We identified one restriction: the legal requirement that, in the event the patient elects IVF, the physician transfers a number of pre-embryos determined by law
Measurement questions:
  1. Is preimplantation genetic diagnosis permissible
  2. Is oocyte cryopreservation permissible?
  3. Is embryo cryopreservation permissible for reproductive purposes?
  4. Is sperm donation permissible?
  5. Is oocyte donation permissible?
  6. Are IVF surrogacy agreements enforceable?
  7. Marital status requirements?
  8. Do same-sex couples have access to ART?
  9. Do single women have access to ART?
  10. Are there any limits on the number of pre-embryos that can be transferred?
Data sources:

Data were collected from the following sources:

  1. H.W. Jones and J. Cohen, International Federation of Fertility Societies (IFFS), Surveillance, Vol. 81, No. 5, Suppl. 4, Fertility and Sterility
  2. "BioPlocywiki, "Surrogacy", (last modified on June 24, 2009).
  3. GayLawNet, "Laws",
  4. The ESHRE Working Group on Oocyte Cryopreservation in Europe, F. Shenfield, J. de Mouzon, G. Scaravelli, M. Kupka, A.P. Ferraretti, F.J. Prados, V. Goossens; Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in European countries: statutory background, practice, storage and use, Human Reproduction Open, Volume 2017, Issue 1, 29 March 2017, hox003,
n. Total (out of 56)sort ascending Percentage
1 Russia 56 100
2 New Zealand 53 100
3 Israel 52 90
4 United States 52 100
5 South Africa 52 90
6 Greece 52 100
7 India 52 100
8 Finland 50 100
9 Australia 49 100
10 Netherlands 49 100
11 Rwanda 48 80
12 Belgium 48 100
13 Iceland 48 100
14 Denmark 47 100
15 Argentina 46 100
16 Vietnam 46 90
17 United Kingdom 46 100
18 Brazil 46 100
19 Canada 46 100
20 Spain 46 100