World Congress

for freedom of scientific research

End of life

End of life decisions concern our ability to make choices concerning the end of our lives and take of the form of refusal of life sustaining treatment, being help in committing suicide, choosing euthanasia, and make choices that must be upheld even when the person becomes unconscious. As Young (2010) noted, “People have an interest in making important decisions about their lives in accordance with their own conception of how they want their lives to go.”

End of life

Approach:

To measure the degree of freedom that a person enjoys with regard to deciding how her life should end, we identified the key decisions that express such freedom as they involve an exercise of autonomy that binds health care professionals.

  1. The freedom to request that active euthanasia is performed
  2. The freedom to request that passive euthanasia is performed
  3. The freedom to be assisted in committing suicide
  4. The freedom to refuse treatment
  5. The freedom to issues specific directive that bind health care professionals in the future
Measurement questions:
  1. Is passive euthanasia lawful?
  2. Is active euthanasia lawful?
  3. Is physician-assisted suicide lawful?
  4. Are advance directives enforceable?
  5. Is a physician required to respect a patient's refusal of life-sustaining treatment?
Data sources:

Data were collected from the following sources:

  1. Aksoy, Sahin. "Ethical Considerations on End of Life Issues in Turkey (in Bioethics in Asia in the 21st Century)."  http://www.eubios.info/ABC4/abc4079.htm
  2. de Cruz, Peter. Comparative Healthcare Law. London, Sidney: Cavendish Publishing Ltd., 2001.
  3. Griffiths, John, Heleen Weyers, and Maurice Adams. Euthanasia and Law in Europe. Oxford; Portland, OR: Hart, 2008.
  4. Jox, R. J., S. Michalowski, J. Lorenz, and J. Schildmann. "Substitute Decision Making in Medicine: Comparative Analysis of the Ethico-Legal Discourse in England and Germany." Med Health Care Philos 11, no. 2 (2008): 153-63.
  5. Keown, John. Euthanasia Examined: Ethical, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  6. Mendelson, Danuta, and Timothy Stoltzfus Jost. "A Comparative Study of the Law of Palliative Care and End-of-Life Treatment." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 31, no. 1 (2003): 130.
  7. Pridgeon, J. Lucy. "Euthanasia Legislation in the European Union: Is a Universal Law Possible?" Hanse Law Review 2, no. 1 (2006): 45-59.
  8. Scherer, Jennifer M., and Rita J. Simon. Euthanasia and the Right to Die: A Comparative View. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.
  9. Nicol, Julia, Marlisa Tiedemann, and Dominique Valiquet. "Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: International Experiences."  http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/2011-67-e.htm
  10. Young, Robert. "Voluntary Euthanasia."  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/euthanasia-voluntary/
n. Total (out of 36)sort ascending % survey complete
1 Belgium 36 100
2 Netherlands 36 100
3 Canada 30 100
4 Austria 24 100
5 Germany 24 100
6 Finland 22 100
7 Japan 20 100
8 United States 18 100
9 Singapore 18 100
10 Mexico 18 100
11 France 18 100
12 Sweden 18 100
13 Argentina 18 80
14 United Kingdom 16 100
15 Denmark 16 100
16 Switzerland 16 100
17 Taiwan 14 100
18 Hungary 12 100
19 Iceland 12 100
20 Slovenia 12 80
21 Spain 12 100
22 New Zealand 12 100
23 Australia 12 100
24 Greece 12 100
25 Turkey 10 100
26 Portugal 10 100
27 Romania 8 100
28 China 8 100
29 Italy 8 100
30 Poland 6 100
31 South Africa 6 100
32 India 4 100
33 South Korea 4 80
34 Iran 2 100
35 Croatia 2 80
36 Norway 2 100
37 Philippines 2 100
38 Yemen 0 100
39 Egypt 0 80