Research with embryos and pre-embryos as well as therapeutic cloning concerns scientists' freedom to investigate human biology as well as patients' freedom to access regenerative medicine treatments that may be developed as a result of research with human embryonic stem cells. Since the early 2000s, research with embryos has been at the center of an often-polarized debate about the nature and scope of scientific freedom.
Research with embryo
To measure the freedom of research with pre-embryos and embryos, we identified key restrictions concerning the legality of research and on the sources from which embryonic stem cells from can be lawfully be derived. These sources are supernumerary IVF embryos (also known as “orphan” embryos, that is, embryos originally created in vitro to be then transferred in an infertile woman’s womb and no longer destined not to be transferred), imported cell lines, and embryos created at hoc for research by using somatic cell nuclear transfer involving either human or non-human animal tissue.
- Is the use of human pre-embryos for experimental purposes an acceptable procedure? If not, can imported stem cells be used?
- Is derivation of new hESC lines from supernumerary IVF embryos lawful?
- Is derivation of new hESC lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) lawful?
- Is derivation of new hESC from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using non-human animal eggs lawful?
Data were collected from the following sources:
- Elstner, A., et al. (2009). "The changing landscape of European and international regulation on embryonic stem cell research." Stem Cell Res 2(2): 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2008.10.003
- Australia. "Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction.
- Canada. "Assisted Human Reproduction Act." 2004.
- European Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry. "The Status of Hesc Research Legislation Throughout Europe."
- Isasi, R. M., and B. M. Knoppers. "Mind the Gap: Policy Approaches to Embryonic Stem Cell and Cloning Research in 50 Countries." Europena Journal of Health Law 13, no. 1 (2006): 9-25.
- Jones, Howard W., and Jean Cohen. "Chapter 4: Marital Status." Fertility and sterility 87, no. 4 (2007): S17-S18.
- Rugg-Gunn, Peter J., Ubaka Ogbogu, Janet Rossant, and Timothy Caulfield. "The Challenge of Regulating Rapidly Changing Science: Stem Cell Legislation in Canada." Cell Stem Cell 4, no. 4 (2009): 285-88.
- The Hixton Group. "World Stem Cells Policies."
- UNESCO International Bioethics Committee. "Report of the Working Group of IBC on Human Cloning and International Governance ", 1-20. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.
|n.||Total (out of 20)||Percentage|
|23||Hong Kong S.A.R., China||10||75|
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