In modern societies, freedom of research and freedom of treatment are challenged and nevertheless crucial aspects. In my speech I will investigate this topic, and I will show the results of a study aimed at creating a world index of freedom of research and treatment. In developing this index, we started from the analysis of rules and regulations concerning four research areas (abortion and contraception, embryo research, euthanasia and assisted reproductive technologies). The index shows a snapshot of freedom of research and treatment worldwide. Comprehensive data for over 20 countries were collected. The picture we get is that of a diverse situation, with economically and institutionally developed countries ensuring greater freedom. Even among these, however, societies with comparable traditions and development levels differ significantly. As regards the research areas, rules and regulations governing abortion are more structured and constant than those governing the three other policy areas, partly because the topic was long debated. Even here, however, interesting aspects can be observed, as neighbouring countries may apply different rules, and federal countries, such as Mexico, show deep internal divisions. Policies on the use of embryos and stem cells are controversial. However, after the heated debate that took place in the 2000s, these policies have been quite stable, as the political debate veered again towards abortion. Policies on euthanasia are much less developed, partly as a result of the topic’s complexity, and partly because of the scarcity of public debate. Only a limited number of countries decriminalized active euthanasia. ARTs are an extremely animated policy area, as techniques make fast progress and the demand is rising. The main difference in terms of freedom lies in single individuals’ and gay couples’ access to such techniques, as well as in the possibility of donating gametes to non-fertile couples and that of resorting to surrogacy. The project, which is still in its early stages, aims at carrying out a constant monitoring, thereby providing political decision-makers with food for thought, and researchers and activists with current data.