GM Crops

GM crops have contributed significantly to modern agriculture. Genetic modification techniques have led to improving crops in more targeted ways than conventional techniques. GM crops acquire desirable characteristics, including pest and herbicide resistance, enhanced robustness against diseases, drought or water tolerance, and healthier profiles that can enhance nutrition.


Research and commercialization of GM crops are unevenly regulated across countries. To measure the realization of the right to science with regard to GM crops, we looked at the various stages of knowledge production and benefit sharing–from research in the lab, to field trial, domestic commercialization and import/export.

Brazil, Canada, and Chile are countries in which scientist can study GMOs without the need to secure prior authorization. Field trials must be authorized in all countries we have researched. Chile is also particularly liberal with regard to commercialization.

Because of EU regulations, European countries have rather regulatory approaches when it comes to research but not whit regard to cultivation–it is prohibited in 7 European countries even though the same countries cannot prohibit the commercialization of imported GM crops. One crucial difference among Ey nations is the frequency to which instances of research and commercialization occur. In this regard, EU countries vary considerably.

Data sources

Data were collected by EuropaBio, the European Association for Bioindustries.