Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have two main characteristics that make them such an appealing cell type for regenerative medicine: they can stay in culture in an undifferentiated state for an unlimited time, and steered by correct triggers, the can differentiate into any cell type in the body.  It has taken several decades for the development of differentiation protocols that have a high yield of pure cell populations, and that can be conformed to strict GMP rules.  Different examples of these developments will be discussed, such as for the treatment of blindness and diabetes, and the latest developments in the differentiation into gametes will be discussed.  This last example in particular carries a heavy ethical burden and raises new questions as the significance of (biological) parenthood.