He entered the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Pisa on November 1954. At the same time, he won, in a national competition, one of the two positions as a student in the “Medical College” of the “Scuola Normale Superiore” of Pisa, now called Collegio S. Anna. This position was maintained up to the MD degree.

MD degree on 1960 with 110/110 cum laude. The thesis has been recognized as “worth of publication”.

During these 6 academic years he worked in the Institute of Human Physiology of the University directed by Prof. G. Moruzzi. After the MD degree he has followed a two years course of Biophysics “Libera Docenza” (equivalent to PhD) in Human Physiology in 1967. Postdoc with Sir John Eccles in 1965-67 in Canberra and Chicago.