Infertility is a condition affecting an increasing number of individuals all over the world. In recent years, this phenomenon has spread across the world, thus developing the features of an out and out epidemics.  

Infertility can have important repercussions on both males and females at physical and psychological level, including, among others, low self-esteem, isolation, loss of control, sexual inadequacy and depression.

From a socio-economic point of view, infertility leads to significant healthcare and demographic costs. In spite of this, such a delicate issue is often neglected by institutions and legislators struggle to keep the pace with scientific advancements. 

Assisted reproduction treatments (ART) can only partially compensate the constant increase in infertility rates. Like all medical techniques, however, ART can be successfully applied only to specific categories of patients and, although the is very rare, medical complications can occur (Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, surgical complications, reactions to drugs, etc.).

Other risks include loss or mix-up of gametes, embryos and genetic material. In developed countries, these events are extremely unlikely due to strict regulations on this subject. 

Finally, threats for patients can arise from differences in legislations in place in different countries. Couples forced to move abroad to get access to treatments not allowed or not affordable in their country of origin are exposed to higher risks related to linguistic barriers, potentially lower safety and quality standards and lack of medical assistance in the country of origin.