Québec (Canada) was surveyed by the students of Bryant University, RI, USA. Last update: March 2009. Any peer review of data is welcome. A special thanks to Sidney Altman, Sterling Professor of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology; Professor of Chemistry; Member of Yale faculty since 1971

Monitoring freedom of research and cure in QUEBEC (CANADA) Table of content: A. Artificial reproduction technologies (ART) B. Research with human embryonic stem cells (hESC) C. End-of-life decisions D. Abortion and contraception A. Artificial reproduction technologies (ART) ART in Québec is regulated under the same agency of Canada. The Assisted Human Reproductive Agency of Canada (AHRAC) controls most aspects of ART yet some of the practices are left out of the agencies regulations, so the cases are taken one at a time. Overall ART is not restricted in Québec, yet it is regulated by a government agency. B. Research with human embryonic stem cells (hESC) Until March 2002 there were no restrictions in Québec regarding stem cell research. Restrictions since then include the creation of embryos for research purposes only. Also, stem cells cannot be created through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, whether it be in human-animal eggs or non-human. Free and informed consent must be provided voluntarily and with full disclosure of all information relevant to the consent. C. End-of-life decisions Public policy in Québec is very similar to that of the United States, they believe that a patient has the right to refuse life sustaining treatment and it is lawful to do so with the country. Officials believe doctors should not be held responsible for keep someone alive that does not want to be. They feel it is the doctor’s responsibility to provide treatment when possible but not to enforce or police such treatment. Active euthanasia is, however, unlawful and is considered the Canadian equivalent to manslaughter. They believe that the act of aiding or assisting in the act of suicide is illegal and punishable by law. Advanced directives, much like the United States are legal and can be enforceable as long as they are made under certain conditions that certify this is the final wish of the patient. D. Abortion and contraception Abortion, contraceptives, and the ‘morning-after pill’ are all allowed within the province of Québec. RU486 is currently not available in all of Canada, although it may be retrieved in the US. Abortion in particular is fully funded by the state providing a strong degree of positive freedom (which includes minors), but it is only allowed for the first seven weeks after the last menstrual period and sometimes hospitals require waiting periods and doctor’s referrals. Virtually all contraceptives are legalized and available over-the-counter for all ages but without government subsidizing. The ‘morning-after pill’ is offered with occasional partial coverage and without parental consent for minors. (Quebec was surveyed by the students of Bryant University, RI, USA. Last update: March 2009. Little remarks have been added. Any peer review of data is welcome.) Missing info on: E. Therapeutic uses of narcotic drugs F. Pain treatments